Active Ingredient: Hydroxyzine
Oxygen flow rates are the same as for the standard circle system as is the selection of a reservoir bag size. Advantages to the circle system are 2,3: a.
Lower fresh gas flow rates economical and environmentally friendly b. Length of the tubing can be adjusted to distance the anesthetic machine away from the patient and optimize patient exposure to the surgeon for various procedures c.
Carbon dioxide is absorbed Mapleson Systems Mapleson breathing systems are different in design and function in that there are no valves to direct the flow of gases and there is no carbon dioxide absorber.
Fresh gas flows must therefore be higher to flush the exhaled carbon dioxide out of the system.
Mapleson systems have been divided into five basic types, labeled A through E. Disadvantages of the circle system include 2,3: a.
Multiple parts that need to be connected correctly for proper function b. Multiple connections that increase potential areas for disconnect or leakage Advantages of the Mapleson systems are:4 a.Members have a responsibility to supply information to the extent possible that on -May- :24 lifestile said How many days will it take for the cheque to clear.
The equipment is simple, inexpensive and relatively easy to use, clean and maintain b. They are light weight, less bulky and 9 easy to position c.
There is generally less resistance to breathing with a Mapleson system than a circle system d. They do not require a carbon dioxide absorber or multiple, complex moving parts e.
Minimal mechanical dead space is added f. The system allows the inspired concentration of anesthetic to be altered quickly Disadvantage of the Mapleson systems are: 3,4 a.
Requires higher fresh gas flow rates, resulting in increased costs b. Increased pollution due to higher flow rates required d.
Anything that causes the fresh gas flow to drop presents a hazard for dangerous rebreathing Bain system The Bain system, a common breathing system used in veterinary anesthesia, is a modification of the Mapleson D system. It comes in two designs.
The first one has the narrow fresh gas tube running alongside the wider expiratory tube. The second, more common design, is a coaxial system where the narrow tube carrying the fresh gas runs inside the larger corrugated tube that carries the exhaled gases away from the patient.
Since the tube carrying the fresh gases is of narrow design and the oxygen flush valve delivers oxygen at an elevated flow rate, the oxygen flush valve should never be utilized with a Bain hose connected to a patient.