Active Ingredient: Orlistat
However, the use of thyroid hormone treatment in euthyroid patients led to an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.
These diet pill regimens induced mortality due to myocardial toxicity and sudden death. However, studies showed the association between PPA use and the occurrence of intracranial bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke.
However, several other over-the-counter weight loss products currently fuel a billion dollar supplement industry which includes products purported to: modulate carbohydrate metabolism e.
Finally, rimonabant, a potent, selective endocannabinoid CB 1-receptor antagonist recently showed great promise in clinical trials for inducing weight loss and was expected to gain FDA-approval for anti-obesity therapy.
In response, Sanofi-Aventis, which developed and marketed rimonabant, terminated studies of that agent, triggering the discontinuation of the clinical development of other CB 1 antagonists.
Currently, the most effective means of achieving long-term weight loss in obese patients is through bariatric surgery. However, due to its inherent risks, this procedure is reserved for morbidly obese patients and those with serious co-morbidities.
Therefore, physicians often enroll overweight and obese patients in counseling and lifestyle modification programs to combat their weight problems. However, while patients enrolled in these programs enjoy some initial success, most regain the majority of their lost weight within 5 years.
The only two drugs currently FDA-approved for the long-term treatment of obesity, sibutramine and orlistat, enhance and maintain weight loss in overweight and obese patients when combined with lifestyle modification.
However, sibutramine and orlistat are associated with cardiovascular and GI side effects, respectively, which make them undesirable to both patients and physicians.
With the global rise in obesity over the past few decades much research has focused on the endogenous regulation of appetite and energy balance, and these studies have yielded several central and peripheral anti-obesity molecular targets.
The development of anti-obesity drugs is tainted by a history of morbidity and mortality, but with a greater understanding of the physiology of energy balance, and the pathophysiology of its dysregulation, the next generation of molecularly targeted agents should be effective, safe, and well-tolerated.
The primary effect of most circulating satiety hormones on appetite and energy balance is mediated by the modulation of the signaling of these neurons. Signaling at neuronal Y 1- and Y 5-receptors produces the orexigenic effects of NPY, and pharmacologic blockade or genetic deletion of the Y 1- and Y 5-receptors reduces food intake and weight in mice, with Y 1-receptor signaling appearing to be the major mediator of the orexigenic effects of NPY.
An orally active Y 5-receptor antagonist MK-0557 Merck was unable to induce clinically meaningful weight loss in a 1-year clinical trial. While Y 1- and Y 5-receptor signaling produce appetite-stimulating effects, Y 2- and Y 4-receptor signaling produce an anorexic phenotype due to their pre-synaptic inhibition of NPY release.
Filter Types: Most people use the standard disposable pleated kind of filter that come in a range of sizes and ratings.